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Contrary to previous research findings, the stress of the COVID-19 pandemic has been linked to an increased headache burden in teens.
Investigators found factors contributing to headache for preteens and teens during the pandemic included increased screen time for online learning, depression, anxiety, female sex, and weight gain.
“The stressors and pressures of the pandemic may have eventually taken their toll,” lead author Ayşe Nur Özdağ Acarli, MD, Ermenek State Hospital, Department of Neurology, Karaman, Turkey, told Medscape Medical News.
“Limiting screen time and providing more psychosocial supports would help lessen the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents with headache.”
The findings were presented at the Congress of the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) 2022.
Most Common Neurological Problem in Kids
Headache is the most common neurologic problem in children and adolescents. Potential factors contributing to headache in this population include lack of sleep and physical activity, mental health problems, and socioeconomic conditions.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a “striking” impact on every aspect of life for young people, said Acarli.
Some studies reported an improvement in headache prevalence among adolescents during COVID-19, which was attributed to less school-related stress. However, said Acarli in her personal clinical experience, young patients suffered more frequent and severe headaches during the pandemic.
She noted previous research examining the impact of the pandemic on headache in youth only was conducted in the early days of the pandemic and examined shorter-term effects. Research examining the long-term effects of the pandemic on headache in this patient population has been “lacking,” she said.
The study included 851 participants aged 10-18 years (mean age 14.9 years and 62% female) who were seen at a neurology or pediatric outpatient clinic from August–December 2021. The study excluded subjects with neurologic problems, intellectual deficits, autism spectrum disorder, and epilepsy.
Participants completed detailed questionnaires providing data on demographics, exposure to COVID-19, and electronics as well as information on depressive symptoms as assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and anxiety symptoms using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and COVID-related anxiety.
“We used two distinct scales for anxiety, one for generalized anxiety and the other for COVID-related anxiety,” said Acarli.
Of the total study population, 756 (89%) reported headaches. This headache prevalence in children and adolescents is like that found in other studies.
Acarli noted several differences in the headache group vs the non-headache group. The female/male ratio was 2:1 vs 1:1, the mean age was 15.0 vs 14.4 and depression and generalized anxiety scores were significantly higher. There was no significant difference in COVID-19 history in those with and without headache.
Researchers categorized those with headache into four groups: worsening headaches (27%), improved headaches (3%), new onset headaches (10%), and stable headaches (61%).
Compared with the other groups, the worsened headache group included significantly more females and older individuals with more severe and frequent headaches. This group also had more participants reporting at least 15 headache attacks a month and using painkillers at least once a month.
The study showed headache severity was significantly increased with age, headache duration, depression, generalized anxiety (all P < .001) and COVID-19 anxiety (P < .01). Headache frequency, measured as attacks per month, was significantly increased with age, depression, and generalized anxiety (all P < .001).
Worsening headache outcomes during the pandemic were associated with longer exposure to computer screens (odds ratio [OR], 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2 – 2.3; P < .01), lack of suitable conditions for online learning (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.8 – 3.8; P < .001), depression (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4 – 2.8; P < .001); and COVID-19 anxiety (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3 – 8.0; P < .01). Other contributing factors included school exams, living in a city, female sex, and weight gain.
There may be a link between COVID-related headaches and anxiety or depression, but it’s unclear what’s causing what. “We don’t know which is the chicken and which is the egg,” said Acarli.
Commenting for Medscape Medical News, Raquel Gil-Gouveia, MD, PhD, head of the Neurology Department, Hospital da Luz, Lisbon, Portugal, who co-chaired the session where the research was presented, said the information collected for the study was “extensive.”
Some results were expected, including the fact that patients with headaches were more anxious and depressed, said Gil-Gouveia.
“Anxiety and depression are frequent comorbidities of headache and can act as a triggering factor for headache attacks but can also be a consequence of intense or chronic pain,” she said.
She agreed the new results differ from those of studies carried out during the first pandemic lockdown, which showed an improvement in headache, but noted online learning was not fully implemented at that time, “so it was much like being on vacation.”
In addition to isolation, anxiety, and prolonged screen exposure, the lack of peer contact and fewer sports and leisure activities may also have contributed to worsening headaches during the COVID lockdown, but these were not explored in this study, said Gil-Gouveia.
The study was supported by the Global Migraine and Pain Society . The investigators and Gil-Gouveia report no relevant financial relationships.
Congress of the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) 2022: Abstract A-22-03235. Presented June 25, 2022.